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保持大脑健康,请远离这7种食物!
添加时间:2019-08-26 08:09:56 浏览次数: 作者:未知
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  • 1。 Trans Fats

    反式脂肪

    The good news is that not all fats are bad for you. However, a particular kind of fat called trans fat does have a detrimental1 effect on the brain. Trans fats are found naturally in animal products including meat and dairy, but even these are not as problematic as the industrially produced trans fats that get pumped into all sorts of packaged foods.

    好消息是,不是所有的脂肪对你都没好处。但是,反式脂肪确实会给大脑造成损害。反式脂肪天然存在于肉制品和奶制品等动物产品中,但这些脂肪都没有各种包装食品中的工业反式脂肪危害大。

    Otherwise known as hydrogenated oil, people who eat a lot of trans fat in the form of margarine, store-bought baked goods, chips and crackers2, frozen and canned meals, and creamy beverages3 are at a greater risk for Alzheimer's and dementia. Studies have shown that high consumption of trans fats also leads to earlier cognitive4 decline, lower brain volume, and poorer memory.

    工业反式脂肪又名氢化油,通过吃人造黄油、商店买来的烘焙食品、薯片和饼干、冷冻和罐头食品、奶油饮料摄入反式脂肪的人更容易得阿尔茨海默病和痴呆症。研究显示,大量摄入反式脂肪还会导致认知功能过早衰退、脑容量降低和记忆力减退。

    2。 Sugary Drinks

    含糖饮料

    Sugary drinks like soda, sports drinks, energy drinks, and even fruit juice have little to no nutritional5 value. Regular consumption of sugary drinks can lead to a whole host of physical impairments, including type 2 diabetes6, high blood pressure, high cholesterol7, and yes – Alzheimer's disease or dementia.

    汽水、运动饮料、能量饮料甚至果汁等含糖饮料都没有什么营养价值。经常摄入含糖饮料会引发一系列身体损伤,包括2型糖尿病、高血压、高胆固醇、阿尔茨海默病或痴呆症。

    A high intake8 of fructose that's found in many sugary drinks, has been shown to reduce learning ability, memory, overall brain function, and the formation of new neurons in the brain. It may also lead to increased inflammation in the brain, which negatively affects all types of brain function.

    研究显示,大量摄入果糖(许多含糖饮料都含有果糖)会降低学习能力、记忆力、整体脑功能和大脑中新神经元的生成速度。摄入果糖也许还会加重大脑炎症,对各种大脑功能产生负面影响。

    3. Refined Carbs

    精制碳水化合物

    Refined carbohydrates9 are products made with processed grains. They may not necessarily taste sweet, but they break down into sugar in your body very quickly. That's because the refining process strips all of the fiber10 and nutrition out of the original grain. A meal rich in refined carbs represents a high glycemic load that spikes11 your blood sugar.

    精制碳水化合物是用加工过的粮食制成的产品。它们的味道也许不是甜的,但很快就会在体内分解成糖。这是因为精制过程中从原始谷物中剔除了所有的纤维和营养。富含精制碳水化合物的一餐意味着让血糖飙升的高血糖负荷。

    That causes all the same issues as if you had eaten straight sugar, including memory impairment, inflammation, and a higher risk of developing dementia. Studies have shown that children who consume diets high in refined carbohydrates score lower on nonverbal intelligence tests. And elderly people who take in more than 58% of their daily calories in refined carbs have twice the risk of mental impairment and dementia than those who eat more whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.

    这就会引发和直接吃糖一样的问题,包括记忆力减退、炎症和更高的痴呆症风险。研究显示,摄入大量精制碳水化合物的孩子在非言语智力测试中得分更低。精制碳水化合物日常摄入量超过总热量58%的老年人智力受损和痴呆的风险比吃更多全谷物、水果和蔬菜的人高两倍。

    4。 Processed and Packaged Foods

    高加工和包装食品

    Processed and packaged foods remove important nutrition from whole food and replace it with sugar, fat, and salt. This is our so-called Western diet, one which relies on convenience and fast foods. And we get it – people are busy and sometimes it just isn't possible to make your own sauces, dressings12, pastas, and baked goods.

    澳门百家乐官网高加工和包装食品从天然食物中移除了重要营养,并用糖、脂肪和盐取而代之。这就是我们所谓的依赖方便食品和快餐的西式饮食。我们理解,人们很忙,有时候没办法自己做酱汁、调料、面条和烘焙食品。

    However, it is important to cook with whole nutritious13 foods as often as you can swing it, because the Western diet is notorious for causing an accumulation of fat around the vital organs. This, in turn, is associated with damage to the brain tissue and a reduction in the brain's volume. It may also cause disruptions to the blood-brain barrier, the membrane14澳门百家乐官网 that is responsible for protecting the brain from harmful substances.

    但是,只要你能腾出空来,你应该尽量自己多做全营养食品,因为西式饮食会导致脂肪在重要器官周围积聚,进而对大脑组织造成损伤,降低脑容量,也许还可能破坏血脑屏障,血脑屏障是保护大脑不被有害物质侵入的薄膜。

    5。 Alcohol

    酒精

    It's probably no surprise that alcohol can harm the brain, considering how much stupid stuff people tend to do under the influence. Getting tipsy every once in a while probably won't cause permanent damage, but alcoholism and bouts15 of binge drinking absolutely can.

    酒精会损害大脑,这可能并不让人意外,你只需要想一想人们在酒精的影响力下都干了多少蠢事。偶尔小酌也许没事,但是酗酒绝对会造成永久性大脑损伤。

    Chronic16 consumption of alcohol tends to shrink the brain and disrupt the neurotransmitters that your brain uses to communicate. Alcoholics17 also often experience a vitamin B1 deficiency, which can lead to the development of Korsakoff's syndrome18. That syndrome is responsible for severe brain damage that causes memory loss, confusion, unsteadiness, and intermittent19 loss of eyesight.

    长期酗酒往往会导致大脑萎缩、破坏大脑用于沟通的神经传递素。酗酒的人通常还会缺乏维生素B1,这可能会引发科尔萨科夫氏综合征(又称健忘综合征)。这种综合征会带来严重的脑损伤,导致记忆缺失、混乱、不稳定以及间歇性失明。

    6。 Fish High in Mercury

    含汞量高的鱼类

    Fish in general is a healthy addition to your diet. It is low in saturated20 fat yet contains healthy omega-3 fatty acids as well as vitamin B12, zinc21, iron, and magnesium22. However, some fish is especially high in mercury, which is a heavy metal contaminant and neurological poison. Mercury stays stored in animal tissue (including human) for a long time.

    基本上,鱼是一种健康的膳食。鱼肉的饱和脂肪含量低,又含有健康的欧米珈-3脂肪酸和维生素B12、锌、铁、镁。但是,有些鱼的汞含量特别高,汞是一种重金属污染物,会毒害人体神经。汞能在动物组织(包括人类)体内储存很长时间。

    Fish that are longer lived and predatory tend to have the highest concentration of mercury in their flesh。 That's because as long as they live, they are consuming other fish that contain lower levels of mercury。 Over a lifetime, these fish can accumulate mercury levels of 1 million times the concentration in the water they swim in。 It is best to avoid or seriously limit your consumption of tuna, swordfish, orange roughy, king mackerel, shark, and tilefish to prevent disruption of your brain's neurotransmitters。

    更长寿的捕食性鱼类通常鱼肉中的汞含量最高。这是因为只要它们活着,它们就会不断摄入其他含汞鱼。这些鱼一生中体内所聚积的汞含量是它们生活的水体的100万倍。为了防止大脑的神经传递素被破坏,最好避免或严格控制金枪鱼、剑鱼、橙连鳍鲑鱼、国王鲭鱼、鲨鱼和方头鱼的摄入。

    7. Aspartame

    阿斯巴甜代糖

    澳门百家乐官网Unfortunately, it is not possible to avoid the harms of too much sugar by replacing it with an artificial sweetener – especially not aspartame。 While producers of this sugar substitute swear that it is safe, several studies have linked aspartame to behavioral and cognitive problems。 As a chemical stressor, it can cause deleterious effects on the ability to learn and regulate emotions。

    不幸的是,用人工甜味剂来代替糖也无法避免对大脑的危害——尤其是阿斯巴甜代糖。尽管这种代糖的生产商宣称它是安全的,但多项研究已经指出阿斯巴甜代糖和多种行为及认知问题之间的联系。作为一种化学刺激物,它会对学习能力和情绪调节能力造成有害影响。

    In one study, just 8 days of a high-aspartame diet cause participants to score lower on mental tests and feel more irritable23 and depressed24 to boot. Another study revealed that people who drink a lot of diet soft drinks, which replace the sugar with artificial sweetener, have an increased risk of dementia or stroke. For now, the FDA says aspartame is safe, but also mandates25 warning labels on products that contain it.

    一项研究发现,只需连续8天摄入含有大量阿斯巴甜代糖的膳食就会导致参与者智力测试的分数下降,而且还让他们感觉更烦躁更抑郁。另一项研究揭示,喝大量无糖软饮料(用人工甜味剂代替糖)的人患痴呆症或中风的风险更高。目前,美国食品及药物管理局认为阿斯巴甜代糖是安全的,但同时也要求含有阿斯巴甜代糖的产品必须贴上警示标签。

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    1 detrimental [ˌdetrɪˈmentl] 1l2zx   第9级
    adj.损害的,造成伤害的
    参考例句:
    • We know that heat treatment is detrimental to milk. 我们知道加热对牛奶是不利的。
    • He wouldn't accept that smoking was detrimental to health. 他不相信吸烟有害健康。
    2 crackers ['krækəz] nvvz5e   第8级
    adj.精神错乱的,癫狂的n.爆竹( cracker的名词复数 );薄脆饼干;(认为)十分愉快的事;迷人的姑娘
    参考例句:
    • That noise is driving me crackers. 那噪声闹得我简直要疯了。
    • We served some crackers and cheese as an appetiser. 我们上了些饼干和奶酪作为开胃品。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    3 beverages [be'vərɪdʒɪz] eb693dc3e09666bb339be2c419d0478e   第7级
    n.饮料( beverage的名词复数 )
    参考例句:
    • laws governing the sale of alcoholic beverages 控制酒类销售的法规
    • regulations governing the sale of alcoholic beverages 含酒精饮料的销售管理条例
    4 cognitive [ˈkɒgnətɪv] Uqwz0   第7级
    adj.认知的,认识的,有感知的
    参考例句:
    • As children grow older, their cognitive processes become sharper. 孩子们越长越大,他们的认知过程变得更为敏锐。
    • The cognitive psychologist is like the tinker who wants to know how a clock works. 认知心理学者倒很像一个需要通晓钟表如何运转的钟表修理匠。
    5 nutritional [njʊ'trɪʃənl] 4HRxN   第8级
    adj.营养的,滋养的
    参考例句:
    • A diet lacking in nutritional value will not keep a person healthy. 缺乏营养价值的饮食不能维持人的健康。
    • The labels on food products give a lot of information about their nutritional content. 食品上的标签提供很多关于营养成分的信息。
    6 diabetes [ˌdaɪəˈbi:ti:z] uPnzu   第9级
    n.糖尿病
    参考例句:
    • In case of diabetes, physicians advise against the use of sugar. 对于糖尿病患者,医生告诫他们不要吃糖。
    • Diabetes is caused by a fault in the insulin production of the body. 糖尿病是由体內胰岛素分泌失调引起的。
    7 cholesterol [kəˈlestərɒl] qrzzV   第8级
    n.(U)胆固醇
    参考例句:
    • There is cholesterol in the cell of body. 人体细胞里有胆固醇。
    • They are determining the serum-protein and cholesterol levels. 他们正在测定血清蛋白和胆固醇的浓度。
    8 intake [ˈɪnteɪk] 44cyQ   第7级
    n.吸入,纳入;进气口,入口
    参考例句:
    • Reduce your salt intake. 减少盐的摄入量。
    • There was a horrified intake of breath from every child. 所有的孩子都害怕地倒抽了一口凉气。
    9 carbohydrates [kɑ:bə'haɪdreɪts] 001f0186d1ea717492c413ca718f2635   第7级
    n.碳水化合物,糖类( carbohydrate的名词复数 );淀粉质或糖类食物
    参考例句:
    • The plant uses the carbohydrates to make cellulose. 植物用碳水化合物制造纤维素。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • All carbohydrates originate from plants. 所有的碳水化合物均来自植物。 来自辞典例句
    10 fiber ['faɪbə] NzAye   第7级
    n.纤维,纤维质
    参考例句:
    • The basic structural unit of yarn is the fiber. 纤维是纱的基本结构单元。
    • The material must be free of fiber clumps. 这种材料必须无纤维块。
    11 spikes ['spaɪks] jhXzrc   第10级
    n.穗( spike的名词复数 );跑鞋;(防滑)鞋钉;尖状物v.加烈酒于( spike的第三人称单数 );偷偷地给某人的饮料加入(更多)酒精( 或药物);把尖状物钉入;打乱某人的计划
    参考例句:
    • a row of iron spikes on a wall 墙头的一排尖铁
    • There is a row of spikes on top of the prison wall to prevent the prisoners escaping. 监狱墙头装有一排尖钉,以防犯人逃跑。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    12 dressings ['dresɪŋz] 2160e00d7f0b6ba4a41a1aba824a2124   第7级
    n.敷料剂;穿衣( dressing的名词复数 );穿戴;(拌制色拉的)调料;(保护伤口的)敷料
    参考例句:
    • He always made sure that any cuts were protected by sterile dressings. 他总是坚持要用无菌纱布包扎伤口。 来自辞典例句
    • I waked the orderly and he poured mineral water on the dressings. 我喊醒勤务,他在我的绷带上倒了些矿质水。 来自辞典例句
    13 nutritious [njuˈtrɪʃəs] xHzxO   第8级
    adj.有营养的,营养价值高的
    参考例句:
    • Fresh vegetables are very nutritious. 新鲜蔬菜富于营养。
    • Hummingbirds have discovered that nectar and pollen are very nutritious. 蜂鸟发现花蜜和花粉是很有营养的。
    14 membrane [ˈmembreɪn] H7ez8   第9级
    n.薄膜,膜皮,羊皮纸
    参考例句:
    • A vibrating membrane in the ear helps to convey sounds to the brain. 耳膜的振动帮助声音传送到大脑。
    • A plastic membrane serves as selective diffusion barrier. 一层塑料薄膜起着选择性渗透屏障的作用。
    15 bouts [bauts] 2abe9936190c45115a3f6a38efb27c43   第9级
    n.拳击(或摔跤)比赛( bout的名词复数 );一段(工作);(尤指坏事的)一通;(疾病的)发作
    参考例句:
    • For much of his life he suffered from recurrent bouts of depression. 他的大半辈子反复发作抑郁症。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • It was one of fistiana's most famous championship bouts. 这是拳击界最有名的冠军赛之一。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
    16 chronic [ˈkrɒnɪk] BO9zl   第7级
    adj.(疾病)长期未愈的,慢性的;极坏的
    参考例句:
    • Famine differs from chronic malnutrition. 饥荒不同于慢性营养不良。
    • Chronic poisoning may lead to death from inanition. 慢性中毒也可能由虚弱导致死亡。
    17 Alcoholics [ˌælkəˈhɔliks] Alcoholics   第8级
    n.嗜酒者,酒鬼( alcoholic的名词复数 )
    参考例句:
    • Many alcoholics go on drinking sprees that continue for days at a time. 许多酒鬼一次要狂饮好几天。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
    • Do you have a copy of the Alcoholics Anonymous book? 你手上有戒酒匿名会的书吗? 来自互联网
    18 syndrome [ˈsɪndrəʊm] uqBwu   第7级
    n.综合病症;并存特性
    参考例句:
    • The Institute says that an unidentified virus is to blame for the syndrome. 该研究所表示,引起这种综合症的是一种尚未确认的病毒。
    • Results indicated that 11 fetuses had Down syndrome. 结果表明有11个胎儿患有唐氏综合征。
    19 intermittent [ˌɪntəˈmɪtənt] ebCzV   第7级
    adj.间歇的,断断续续的
    参考例句:
    • Did you hear the intermittent sound outside? 你听见外面时断时续的声音了吗?|||In the daytime intermittent rains freshened all the earth. 白天里,时断时续地下着雨,使整个大地都生气勃勃了。
    20 saturated ['sætʃəreitid] qjEzG3   第7级
    a.饱和的,充满的
    参考例句:
    • The continuous rain had saturated the soil. 连绵不断的雨把土地淋了个透。
    • a saturated solution of sodium chloride 氯化钠饱和溶液
    21 zinc [zɪŋk] DfxwX   第7级
    n.锌;vt.在...上镀锌
    参考例句:
    • Brass is formed by the fusion of copper and zinc. 黄铜是通过铜和锌的熔合而成的。
    • Zinc is used to protect other metals from corrosion. 锌被用来保护其他金属不受腐蚀。
    22 magnesium [mægˈni:ziəm] bRiz8   第9级
    n.镁
    参考例句:
    • Magnesium is the nutrient element in plant growth. 镁是植物生长的营养要素。
    • The water contains high amounts of magnesium. 这水含有大量的镁。
    23 irritable [ˈɪrɪtəbl] LRuzn   第9级
    adj.急躁的;过敏的;易怒的
    参考例句:
    • He gets irritable when he's got toothache. 他牙一疼就很容易发脾气。
    • Our teacher is an irritable old lady. She gets angry easily. 我们的老师是位脾气急躁的老太太。她很容易生气。
    24 depressed [dɪˈprest] xu8zp9   第8级
    adj.沮丧的,抑郁的,不景气的,萧条的
    参考例句:
    • When he was depressed, he felt utterly divorced from reality. 他心情沮丧时就感到完全脱离了现实。
    • His mother was depressed by the sad news. 这个坏消息使他的母亲意志消沉。
    25 mandates [] 2acac1276dba74275e1c7c1a20146ad9   第9级
    托管(mandate的第三人称单数形式)
    参考例句:
    • Individual mandates would require all people to purchase health insurance. 个人托管要求所有人都要购买健康保险。
    • While I agree with those benefits, I'm not a supporter of mandates. 我同意上述好处,我不是授权软件的支持者。

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